ሜቴክ ካሉት ግዙፍ የመከላከያ ፋብሪካዎች ውስጥ አንዱም በወያኔ ዘመን ያልተሰራ መሆኑና – የሀሳቡ ባለቤትም ሆነ ፕሮጀክቶቹን መሬት ያስነኩት እነ ጀነራል ፋንታ በላይ መሆናቸውን ስንታችን እናውቅ ይሆን? በማስረጃ ልጀምር
ፕሮፌሰር ገብሩ ታረቀ The Ethiopian Revolution በሚለው በባለ 437 ገጽ መጽሃፋቸው ስለ ቀድሞው የኢትዮጵያ ሠራዊትና የውጊያ ውሎዎቹ ብዙ ጽፈዋል:: ገጽ 136 እና 137 ላይ ግን ሞስኮ ላይ ስለተካሄደውና በጸብ ስላለቀው የጀነራል ፋንታ በላይና የሩሲያዊው ከፍተኛ የጦር መኮንን አድሚራል ግሪሼን (Admiral Grishen) የጦር መሳርያ ግዢ ስብሰባ ዘርዘር አድርገው ጽፈውታል::
ጀነራል ፋንታ ሞስኮ እዚህ ስብሰባ ላይ የተገኙት የጦር መሳርያ ለመግዛት ሲሆን የራሻ አቻቸው አድሚራል ግሪሼንም ሩሲያን ወክለው ለመደራደር ነው:: ጀነራል ፋንታ በላይ ሩስያ እንድትሸጥላቸው የጠየቁት ሚግ 23 ML (MIG 23 ML ኢንተርሴፕተሩ (አየር ላየር የሚዋጋም ጭምር) ሲሆን BN ደግሞ ቦምበሩ ነው)፣ 12 ሚ 25 ( ተዋጊ ሄሌኮፕተሮች) እና 10 L-39 አውሮፕላኖችን ነበር::
ጀነራል ፋንታ ቀጠሉ ” ያሉንን ሚ 8 እና ሚ 17 ሄሌኮፕተሮችም ሩስያ እየላክን ማሳደስ (Overhaul) አንፈልግም:: ራሳችን ማደስ እንፈልጋለን:: ስለዚህ ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ አውሮፕላን መስራትና ማደስ እንፈልጋለን” በማለት አድሚራሉን አስደንጋጭ ጥያቄ ጠየቋቸው:: አድሚራሉም ጀነራል ፋንታ ያቀረቡት የሚ8 እና 17 ሄሌኮፕተሮችን ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ኦቨርሆል የሚያደርግ ኢንዱስትሪ ለመስራት እንደማይፈቅዱ ተናግረው ይልቁንስ አንቶኖቭ 12ን ግዙ ብለው ማግባባት ሲጀምሩ:: ኩሩው ጀነራል ፋንታ አንቶኖቭ 12 የደከመና የቆየ አውሮፕላን ነው እሱን እንዴት ግዙ ትሉናላችሁ ብለው በንዴት ስብሰባውን አቋርጠው ወጡ::
ፋንታ አላረፉም:: መሳርያ ከውጭ በመግዛት ኢትዮጵያ ደህንነቷን በቋሚነት ማስጠበቅ አትችልም የሚል ጠንካራ እምነት የነበራቸው የአየር ኃይል አዛዥና በኋላም በዚሁ አቋማቸው ምክንያት ኢንዱስትሪ ሚኒስቴር የሆኑት ፋንታ በላይ – ሰሜን ኮርያን በማሳመን የስምንት ግዙፍ ፕሮጀክቶችን አስጀመሩ:: ፕሮጀክቶቹ የአየር ኃይል (ቀድሞ ሲቪል መሃንዲስ አሁን ደጀን የተባለው የአውሮፕላን ፕላንት): ጋፋት የአውቶማቲክ ጦር መሳርያ ማምረቻ : ሖርማት የተለያዩ ቀላልና ከባድ መሳርያ ጥይቶችና ፈንጂዎች ማምረቻ: አሰብ የአነስተኛን መካከለኛ ተዋጊ ጀልባዎች ፋብሪካ : ፕሮጀት 40 ሺህ በመባል የሚታወቀው የታንክና የብረት ለበስ የጦር መኪና ማምረቻ ፋብሪካና የወታደራዊ ትጥቅ ፋብሪካ ሲሆኑ – ከዚህ ጋር ከራሺያ ጋር በመደራደር ቤላሩስ ትራክተሮችን የሚያመርተውን ናትፋ (ናዝሬት ትራክተር ፋብሪካን) አቋቋሙ::
የእውቁ የታሪክ ሊቅ ፕሮፌሰር ባህሩ ዘውዴ ተማሪ የሆነው ዶክተር ፋንታሁን አየለ The Ethiopian Army from Victory to collapse የሚለው ድንቅ የዶክትሬት ቴሲሱ ላይ ስለያንዳንዱ ወታደራዊ ፕሮጀክቶች ይተርክልናል:: ገጽ 58
1. #ጋፋት የክላሺንኮቭና መትረየስ ፋብሪካ – ሞጆና ደብረዘይት መሃል
” the North Koreans helped Ethiopia establish several armament plants. One of these was the Gafat Engineering Plant (named the Elala Gada Project) set up at Mojo. Starting from late 1989 it was meant to produce 20,000 assault rifles of the Kalashinkov generation and 1400 LMGs annually. A total of 122,507,163 Birr was allocated for the completion of the
project. በ1981 ሥራ የጀመረ
2. #ሖርማት (ጉደር) – የሮኬት : መድፍና ሞርታር ጥይት ፋብሪካ
“The other North Korean-supported undertaking was the Hormat Project, an
ammunition plant to be established at a place called Hormat near Gudar. The plant was planned to produce on a shift basis 50,000 shells for 60 mm mortars, 160,000 shells for 82 mm mortars 30,000 shells for 100 mm artillery guns, 50,000 shells for 122 mm field howitzers, and 20,000 shells for 130 mm artillery guns annually. The government allocated 259,200,000 Birr (125,712,391.30 USD) obtained from North Korea. The ammunition plant was expected to begin actual production in 1990. በ 1982 ሥራ የጀመረ
3. #የታንክና_የጦር_መኪናዎች ፋብሪካ – ደብረ ዘይት (የሚስጥር ስም መኮድ/ፕሮጀክት 40 ሺህ)
North Korea was also a member of the consortium of Communist states besides the USSR, Rumania, Yugoslavia and China that agreed to help Ethiopia in setting up a gigantic industry for the production of small arms and heavy weapons along with their spare parts. The heavy industry was planned to produce 7.62 mm automatic assault rifles, 7.62 mm LMGs and HMGs various anti-tank and anti-aircraft guns, mortars, 73 mm – 130 mm artillery pieces as well as T-55 main battle tanks, BTR-60 APCs, BRDM-2 and BMP-I armoured vehicles.
In 1989 ( 1981 Ethiopian calander), the Ethiopian government signed a project agreement with North Korea to set up a plant for the production of various explosives ranging from hand grenades to anti-tank rockets.
በኋላ ስሙ ደጀን አቪዬሽን ተብሎ ስሙ የተቀየረው ፕሮጀክት ደግሞ ሙሉ ለሙሉ የቀድሞው ኢትዮጵያ አየር ኃይል ባለሙያዎች ፕሮጀክትና የአየር ኃይሉ አዛዦች የነጀነራል ፋንታ: ጀነራል አመሃ የስስት ልጅ ነበር:: በወቅቱ ሩሲያዊው አማካሪ ጀነራል የነበረው ጀነራል ሰርጌይ ደግሞ እንዲህ ይለናል
” የኢትዮጵያው ጀነራል ፋንታ በላይ የአውሮፕላን ኦቨርሆውል ፕላንት ኢትዮጵያው ውስጥ የመክፈቱን ሂደት ቀጥሎበታል:: ባጭር ግዜ ውስጥ ኢትዮጵያ ሚጎችን ሀገሯ ውስጥ ኦቨርሆውል ታደርጋለች:;” ግሎባል ሴኪውሪቲ https://www.globalsecurity.org/…/world/ethiopia/industry.htm
“The Dèrg règime had an ambitious plan to produce and overhaul heavy armored vehicles, tanks and many other medium and heavy weapons. That is why the Bishoftu complex was establish around 1987 (1979 Ethiopian calander). The Debrezeit airforce complex has also overhauled MIG fighting jets for long.”
5. #የአሰብ (ሃሌብ ደሴት) የአነስተኛ መካከለኛ ፈጣን የጦር ጀልባ ፋብሪካ
” November 1985 ( 1977 Ethiopian Calandar), North Korea provided Ethiopia a 6 million birr interest-free loan to be used to purchase equipment with which to construct a shipyard on Haleb Island, off Aseb. It was expected the shipyard to produce wooden-hulled and steel-hulled craft ranging in size from 5,000 to 150,000 tons displacement. ” https://www.globalsecurity.org/…/world/ethiopia/industry.htm
Ethiopian Defense Industrial Base
Although Ethiopia began manufacturing weaponry in the 18th century, its modern defense industry is traced to 1953 with the opening of the then-Emperor Haile Selassie ammunition factory built in cooperation with the government of Czechoslovakia. During the Derg Regime (1974-1991) serious attention was given to the development of a domestic defense industrial base. With support from the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc nations several defense factories were established.
The Dèrg règime had an ambitious plan to produce and overhaul heavy armored vehicles, tanks and many other medium and heavy weapons. That is why the Bishoftu complex was establish around 1987. The Debrezeit airforce complex has also overhauled MIG fighting jets for long. It was also interesting to know about the participation of North Korea on boosting the Ethiopian military industry during Dèrg règime. November 1985, North Korea provided Ethiopia a 6 million birr interest-free loan to be used to purchase equipment with which to construct a shipyard on Haleb Island, off Aseb. It was expected the shipyard to produce wooden-hulled and steel-hulled craft ranging in size from 5,000 to 150,000 tons displacement. The project had not been come to the end. The Ethio-Korean military relationship had continued even during the era of EPRDF, as the North Korea had helped the Government by strengthening the Gafat complex in Debrezeit as well as the munitions factory in Ambo.
Following the fall of the Derg regime on May 28, 1991 through the arduous struggle, Ethiopians shifted their full attention to install peace, democracy and development. As a result, the nation enormously reduced its military expenditure for the sake of development and to get rid of poverty. Some examples of the existing Ethiopian defense industry capability are:
- Hibret Machine Tools: Produces medium weapons for the Ethiopian National Defense Force. Its civilian output includes hand tools, hospital beds, aluminum saddles, and household and office furniture.
- Gafat Armament Engineering Complex: Produces a wide range of infantry equipment that meet the requirement of the Ethiopian National Defense Force.
- Homicho Ammunition Engineering Complex: Produces a wide range of ammunition ranging from light weapons to heavy mortars and artillery. It also produces various metal products that are inputs to civil industries.
- Bishoftu Motorization Engineering Complex: Repair and overhaul center for heavy armament, tanks and military vehicles.
- Dejen Aviation Engineering Complex (DAVEC): Center for overhauling and upgrading military aircraft.
- Nazareth Canvas and Garment Factory: Produces and supplies military uniforms, canvas, leather and strap products to the Ethiopian National Defense Force.
- Metals & Engineering Corp., an Ethiopian military-run corporation, planned to partner with more foreign companies as it spearheaded a government-drive to develop industries in Africa’s second-most populous nation. MetEC is engaged in the design, manufacturing, upgrading and maintenance of different products and services of the defense industry including upgrading combat aircraft and helicopters, tanks, vehicles and weapons.METEC was established in June 2010 with 10 billion birr of capital by grouping nine businesses previously owned by the Defense Ministry, including Dejen Aviation Industry and Gafat Armament Industry, Michael said. Six other industries, including plastic, tractor and vehicle spare-parts manufacturers, were transferred to METEC from the privatization agency and it now operates as many as 75 factories nationwide.
The public manufacturing enterprises which are under the control of MetEC, include Dejen Aviation, Bishoftu Automotive and Locomotive, Hibret Machine Tools Engineering Complex, Homicho Ammunition Engineering Complex, Gafat Armament Engineering Complex, Power Engineering, Hitech Industry, Metal and Fabrication Industry, Adama Garment Industry, Ethiopia Plastic SC, and Nazareth Tractor Assembly Plant.
By 2013 METEC, as it’s known, was working with companies including Alstom SA, Europe’s second-largest power-equipment maker, U.S.-based solar-panel manufacturer Spire Corp. (SPIR) and China Poly Group Corp. on engineering and manufacturing projects. Some of the company’s budding industries, like vehicle-assembly and engineering businesses, may generate more than 20 billion birr ($1.1 billion) of revenue a year.
By 2013 MetEC – the misleadingly named Ethiopian Metal and Engineering Corporation – had come to dominate the Ethiopian economy in less than one year. It had its fingers in everything from the so-called Grand Renaissance Dam to arms factories, to a spanking new fertilizer factory, to ten sugar factories. It entrenched a patronage system that gave a larger stake to the military while guaranteeing the survival of the regime.
Since 2007 management of these assets rests in the Ministry of National Defense’s Defense Industry Sector. Investment in the defense industry is permitted only in partnership with the Ethiopian government.
The use of foreign military advisers has a long history in Ethiopia, going back to the arrival of a Portuguese military expedition in the 1530s. French, Russian, Belgian, and Swedish advisers all contributed to efforts before World War II to build a modern army (see Training, this ch.). Following the war, Britain, Sweden, Norway, Israel, and the United States assumed responsibility for training and equipping the Ethiopian armed forces.
After the 1977-78 Ogaden War, the Soviet Union became Ethiopia’s major military supplier. Addis Ababa also received military assistance from a number of other communist nations, including Cuba, East Germany, and North Korea. In addition, by late 1989 Israel had resumed its military relationship with Ethiopia, which the imperial government had broken off at the time of the Arab-Israeli October 1973 War.
With a modest domestic defense industrial base, Ethiopia’s 2002 Foreign Affairs and National Security Policy and Strategy mandated that the economic and defense sectors should benefit one another, and that factories designed for military purposes should also be geared to produce commodities needed by the civilian community. The goal is to reduce the negative impact of military spending on the economy.
In developing this guidance the Ethiopian security planners attempted to address both the pros and cons of defense spending. On the negative side defense spending may inhibit investments by competing for funds and impacting consumer and business spending. In many cases defense scientists and engineers produce goods that have little economic growth potential, but in their efforts may drive resource costs up, possibly creating an uncompetitive position in the world market. On the positive side, military research, development, test and evaluation efforts can provide basic and applied technology for civilian innovation and eventual growth. When this is available in a domestic base the economy is strengthened and jobs are created. A well-planned strategy will seek to absorb any excess economic capacity that would otherwise lie idle.
President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said 22 January 2015: “We will encourage our businessmen, they can develop joint ventures in Ethiopia or they can invest in other countries together. Our construction companies can significantly contribute to the infrastructural and superstructural projects of Ethiopia. We can take joint steps in defense industry and military cooperation.”
6. #ሆምቾ የጦር መሳርያ ተተኳሽ ጥይቶች እና ሮኬት ፋብሪካ The Homicho Ammunition Industry
Via Yohannes Aytne